These are all components of an ERP, or can also be sold as stand-alone (yet integrable) systems in the IS marketplace.
Manufacturing and Production
Supply chain management (SCM) systems are those which support the planning, executing, and controlling of all activities involved in raw material sourcing and procurement, converting raw materials to finished products, and warehousing and delivering finished products to customers. Another way to think of SCM is that it is the management of materials, information, and finances in the supply chain process from supplier -> manufacturer -> wholesaler -> retailer -> consumer.
As such, SCM systems are often interlinked (in a limited capacity) to the SCM systems of the other organizations within the supply chain. This interlinking allows critical customer demand information to be shared with partners that helps the entire supply chain to avoid the massive overproduction based on a falsely inflated sense of customer demand known as the bull-whip effect.
The SCM process starts with sales forecasting to develop an estimate of future consumer demand. There are many SCM standalone system vendors (i.e. not part of an ERP system) like: Fishbowl Inventory, Snapfulfil, U Route, Ramp Enterprise WMS and Interchange EDI, eBid eXchange, 3PL Warehouse Manager, JDA Software, SCExpert, FlexRFP, ViewPoint Logistics, and more.
Finance and Accounting
Financial and managerial accounting systems track the accounting records of a business divided into assets, liabilities, revenue, expenses, and equity. These categories are subdivided in turn into details such as cash, accounts payable, accounts receivable, and so on. More often than not, financial and managerial accounting systems are included in the organization’s core ERP system, even if other systems are implemented separately. If so, then input into the general ledger occurs simultaneously as specific business transactions are processed in other specific modules.
There are several popular stand-alone accounting systems. Some of the most common systems include Multiview Enterprise, Intacct Financials and Accounting Systems, NetSuite Financials, Sage 100 Standard, Adaptive Insights, SAP Accounting, Epicor Financial Management, BOARD Management Intelligence Toolkit, Budget Maestro, and Vena 5.
Accounting TPS : The TPS portion of accounting systems would include the individual entries into the general ledger.
Accounting MIS/DSS/EIS : These systems would have querying tools to help managers identify mistakes, prepare financial statements, verify that rules from the Security and Exchange Commission are followed, etc.
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems are designed to help a company manage all aspects of the customer including customer information, customer encounters, marketing and advertising campaigns, sales, service after the sale, and customer loyalty programs. The general purpose of a CRM system is to improve customer loyalty. A CRM system is not part of the order processing system, but it must draw data heavily from that system to classify customers and generate useful information.
CRM TPS : The TPS portion of a CRM includes entering information about specific customers, customer encounters, service events, and other transactions. The image below shows the customer data from the “leads” category in SalesForce—one of the most popular CRM systems.
Customer leads can be generated by the organization’s own marketing and advertising efforts or purchased from external consulting firms or external databases.
CRM MIS/DSS/EIS : These portions of the CRM system allow managers to view the status and success of advertising campaigns, classify customers into segments, make predictions about future customer preferences, and much more. The image below visualizes another example from the SalesForce system.